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Download e-book for iPad: Abstraction in Artificial Intelligence and Complex Systems by Lorenza Saitta, Jean-Daniel Zucker

By Lorenza Saitta, Jean-Daniel Zucker

▓ Book's spouse Website
http://www.abstractionthebook.com

▓ Abstraction is a primary mechanism underlying either human and synthetic belief, illustration of information, reasoning and studying. This mechanism performs an important function in lots of disciplines, significantly desktop Programming, normal and synthetic imaginative and prescient, advanced platforms, synthetic Intelligence and computing device studying, artwork, and Cognitive Sciences. This booklet first presents the reader with an outline of the notions of abstraction proposed in numerous disciplines via evaluating either commonalities and modifications. After discussing the characterizing homes of abstraction, a proper version, the KRA version, is gifted to catch them. This version makes the concept of abstraction simply acceptable via the advent of a suite of abstraction operators and abstraction styles, reusable throughout varied domain names and purposes. it's the influence of abstraction in man made Intelligence, complicated platforms and computer studying which creates the center of the booklet. A normal framework, in accordance with the KRA version, is gifted, and its pragmatic energy is illustrated with 3 case reviews: Model-based analysis, Cartographic Generalization, and studying Hierarchical Hidden Markov Models.
∙ Collects, describes and compares quite a few methods to abstraction proposed within the literature of varied fields
∙ Discusses why abstraction performs a key position in AI artifacts, utilizing concrete examples, equivalent to cartographic generalization and human/robot interaction
∙ offers a conceptualization framework to layout powerful systems

▒ Book's Preface
When we began penning this ebook we have been conscious of the complexity of the task,
but we didn't think that it should take us nearly 3 years to accomplish it.
Furthermore, in the course of the research and comparability of the literature from different
fields, it sincerely emerged that very important effects were accomplished, yet that much
more very important ones are nonetheless out of achieve. Then, the spirit of the publication replaced, by
itself, from the meant overview of the previous to a stimulus for the longer term. We
would be at liberty if the reader, rather than being content material with the guidelines we propose,
would take them as a motivation and place to begin to move past them.
We current a wide collection of works on abstraction in different disciplines;
nonetheless many correct contributions to the sphere were unavoidably left out,
owing to the sheer volume of pages they'd fill. We ask for forgiveness for the missing
citations.
In this e-book we current a version of abstraction, the KRA version, yet this can be not
the middle of the booklet. It has a restricted scope and serves major reasons: on the
one hand it indicates that a number of past proposals of abstraction theories have a
common root and will be dealt with inside of a unified framework, and, at the different, it
offers a computational surroundings for acting abstraction by means of employing a suite of
available, domain-independent operators (programs). in reality, there's nonetheless a gap
between common abstraction theories, usually stylish logical formulations of representation
changes, and urban techniques that seriously depend upon particular domain
characteristics. The KRA version is intended to be anything in among: the
domain-independence of the abstraction operators achieves either generality (it can
cover a vast spectrum of functions and alertness domains), and synergy (by
instantiating in several contexts a few code written only one time).
Independently of the version, we think that the fundamental principles on which it relies
are extra vital than the version itself. those rules are definitely controversial; some
reader may well imagine that our view of abstraction is precisely what he/she has always
looked for, while another could imagine that abstraction is completely something
else. either reactions are welcome: what concerns is to set off curiosity within the subject
and stimulate extra research.
The publication isn't really meant to be a textbook: it truly is unique to scientists operating on
or utilizing abstraction innovations, with out hassle of fields. machine scientists,
Artificial Intelligence researchers, artists, cognitive scientists, mathematicians, and curious minds can learn the booklet. a few components are extra formalized, and so they may
look advanced firstly sight. despite the fact that, we think that the best a part of the
content is graspable via intuition.

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Extra resources for Abstraction in Artificial Intelligence and Complex Systems

Sample text

8 French philosopher, who lived in the late XII century in Paris. He also has been a teacher of Peter Abelard, who, later, convinced him to change his opinion about universals. 20 2 Abstraction in Different Disciplines An approach relevant to both abstraction and language, even though not explicitly stated so, is described by G¨ardenfors [193]. He discusses the representations needed for language to evolve, and he identifies two main types: cued and detached. A cued representation “stands for something that is present in the current external situation of the representing organism”.

Again, simplification allows knowledge elaborated for the simplified version to be applicable for a larger set of cases than the original one. In summary, both abstraction and idealization are means to obtain generalization; the difference between the two is that while abstraction does not change the description of the reality, but simply limit it (leaving aside some aspects it provides a description which is precise, but reduced), idealization describes reality in a 18 2 Abstraction in Different Disciplines (slightly) different way than it is (approximating some aspects, it provides imprecise knowledge).

As we will see in Chap. 7, abstraction operators can be represented with Abstract Procedural Types. Let us now introduce examples of procedural and data abstraction in order to clarify these notions. 1 Suppose that we want to write a procedure for searching whether an element y appears in a vector X without specifying the actual program to do it. We can define the following abstract procedure: pname = Search(X, y) returns({true, false}) requires X is a vector, y is of the same type as the elements of X modifies ∅ effects Searches through X , and returns true if y occurs in X , else returns false end pname Data abstraction, on the other hand, consists in defining a type of data and the operations that manipulate it.

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Abstraction in Artificial Intelligence and Complex Systems by Lorenza Saitta, Jean-Daniel Zucker


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